London Centre for Energy Engineering

LCEE is a research organisation undertaking innovative, cutting-edge and multidisciplinary energy research.

Energy naturally finds its spot as the hot topic of continued research in academia and industry, owing to its ever-growing demand by the society we live in, and driven by the need for cheaper electricity affordable to all. Global energy consumption has been growing fast and set to increase exponentially in the future. It continues to be a high priority for Government, both in the UK and at international levels. LCEE brings together the strengths and capabilities of members of staff within the School of Engineering (SoE) to be recognised nationally as well as internationally as the leading UK research organisation undertaking innovative, cutting-edge and multidisciplinary energy research. Driven by the school’s intention and based on a virtual centre concept, the LCEE will be an enabling entity to interconnect energy engineering themes across all existing divisions and centres to facilitate research collaborations inside and outside LSBU.

London Centre for Energy Engineering is led by Dr Suela Kellici.


  • To be the internationally leading organisation in the UK undertaking innovative and multidisciplinary research in Energy
  • To be able to bring together a cohesive team of researchers and groups across SoE with an appropriate critical mass to show case its potential within and outside the UK
  • To be the leading training provider for capacity building in the field of energy research, and aligning with the UK focus for inspiring the next generation of researchers, including PhD cohort and M.Sc. programs in the Energy field
  • To be University partner of choice coordinating with S&ICI for industry and other organisations globally pursuing energy research
  • To undertake a leading role in influencing energy policy and strategy within UK government bodies.
  • Advisory board
  • Stakeholder engagement
  • Training and Outreach
  • Energy Grand Challenges
  • Research

Staff directory

To view the full London Centre for Energy Engineering staff list

researchResearch themes

Environment and Emission control

It is already worldwide recognised that air pollution is one of the major health hazards to urban populations worldwide, State-of-the-art urban sustainability studies suggest that the influence of the urban fabric (urban geometry and morphology, presence of vegetation, shape and size of buildings, choice of surface materials and local natural resources) on air quality and heat comfort should be accounted for. Our research therefore focuses on implementing state of the art computational fluid dynamics software to assess the spread of air pollutants – especially due to changes in building heights.

energyEnergy storage

As the UK and the rest of the world moves towards even more renewable energy, supply becomes more dependent on factors outside the control of the energy supplier. One method to balance supply and demand in power generation is to store energy during periods of low demand and use it at high demand. Cryogenic energy storage (CES) makes use of low-temperature liquids as an energy storage and transfer medium. CES can provide large-scale, long-duration energy storage of 5 to 1000 MWh. LCEE are working on a multi-partner 8M euros H2020 project to develop CES at cold storage warehouses.

Heating and cooling

The Heating and Cooling team has a 30year history of attracting high impact research projects and contracts from EPSRC, Government, the EU and the RACHP (refrigeration air conditioning and heat pump industry. In the past 10 years we have secured and delivered more than 60 small to large scale projects. The team are currently involved in a number of prestigious research projects in collaboration with the local and international organisations, the EU, public and government international organisations, the EU, public and government bodies. Recent collaborations have involved a £5.2 million EPSRC project of which LSBU receives £1.2 million and a €7 million EU research grant to develop a ground breaking energy storage technology. Our funding strategy involves working on TRL levels 4-8, developing partnerships with other Universities as well as with industry and aligning our activities with future funding priorities like the Industrial Strategy Clean Growth Plan. Funding priorities like the Industrial Strategy Clean Growth Plan. There search team will aim to develop high impact research project proposals to be submitted to research funding bodies such as the EPSRC, Innovate UK, Government, the EU and the RACHP industry.

Explosion and Fire Research

fireThe LSBU Explosion and Fire Research Group are working with this highly-flammable gas to support hydrogen safety in industrial and transport systems. Our unique research group has over 20 years experience providing knowledge and expertise to industry on the safety of hydrogen produced or contained in a variety of sensitive environments. Our research work into hydrogen safety has investigated a large variety of topics including the likelihood of ignition of hydrogen-air mixtures (mechanical and electrostatic), characterisation of underwater hydrogen releases and mitigation of hydrogen gas explosions using water fog, nitrogen dilution and chemical additives. Our expertise in this area has resulted in a large number of research publications on hydrogen safety. We have a variety of custom-made apparatus for studying the ignition of hydrogen in air, and hydrogen/ oxygen/ nitrogen mixtures. We employ schlieren systems and high-speed video to visualise hydrogen gas dispersion (e.g. bubbles) and flame behaviour, which cannot be seen with the naked eye. Modelling work has simulated mitigation of hydrogen explosions, suppression of hydrogen flames and hydrogen gas dispersion behaviour, and has been validated against experimental test data. As part of ENABLEH2, a custom apparatus has been built to determine flammability (flammability limits, flame speed) and ignition (minimum ignition energy, ignition probability) criteria at the low pressure and low temperature environments found at altitude.  This will enable the risk to be determined far more accurately informing required control measures. The work has also been exploring, through modelling, the implications of large liquid hydrogen releases and ignition scenarios.

Sustainable Design, Manufacture and the Circular Economy

We have 20 years’ experience of sustainable design, manufacture and the circular economy and specialise in real world research and application. We have collaborated with industry on Innovate KTP, EPSRC CASE awards, Interreg NWE and match-funded research projects varying in size from programmable thermostatic radiator valves and commercial refrigeration display cabinets to data centres.  We also work with researchers from other disciplines on human-centred research; examples include development of pro-circular behaviour models for the retail sector (with The Bond Group) and investigations into the effects of solar shading on acoustics, thermal comfort, well-being and work place productivity (with the British Blind and Shutter Association). We are also investigating the gap between the impact of solar shading in the real world and virtual models, which will help software developers to create more accurate models to mitigate the effects of climate change on the built occupants. We regularly work with LSBUs Research, Enterprise and Innovation team to support SMEs, start-up and new businesses; recent projects include design of therapeutic equipment for IceHealth Cryotherapy, developing digital carbon assessment tools for local authorities (ClimaxCommunity), ComfortBreak (sustainable low cost sanitary product development) KiActiv (exercise and well-being engagement digital  tools) and developing training materials for the solar shading and construction industries (with BBSA). These projects all contribute to social, economic and environmental sustainability. Collaboration and co-creation are key to our research and enterprise activities and we have excellent links to colleagues in other disciplines, which enables us to take a holistic approach to the challenge of sustainability. We also have excellent links to experts and businesses in several leading sectors which enables us to create positive real world impact. We also have dedicated lab space and access to a wide range of state of the art prototyping and manufacturing facilities so we can experiment, build and test prototypes and innovative products, systems and services.


Solar Thermal Vacuum Engineering

A global challenge of increasing carbon emissions is profoundly acceptable and by now reached at an alarming rate causing fluctuating impacts on climate and human health. There is also a serious challenge particularly in the energy field of balancing the gap between peak-demand and generating capacity. In order to reduce such security-of-supply risk, retrofitting the buildings with renewable energy and advanced smart insulation technologies are a particular focus by reason of its considerable energy consumption due to space-cooling loss in hot-arid and space-heating loss in cold-arid climate. The notion at which, nowadays, zero energy buildings cannot be imagined without advancement in solar thermal engineering and vacuum insulation technologies because it plays an imperious role of allowing consumers in minimizing their energy consumption and build a modern era of generating energy buildings in future contributing to climate change. There is a thoughtful desire of reducing our carbon footprints and make our infrastructure smart and energy-efficient. Also, an aspiration to mitigate the global energy supply-demand gap and for this, the Solar Thermal Vacuum Engineering Research Group, as part of LCEE, focus comprehensively on integration of progressive technologies of renewable energy, heat storage, solar thermal collectors, photovoltaics, intelligent energy systems, smart windows and vacuum insulation technologies with national and international collaborations.

Saim's research

Highlighted Facilities and Researches

facility 1A newly refurbished material characterisation laboratory provides material and thin film characterisation technique such as a X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, SEM and Acoustic microscopy etc. facility 2Our class A Clean room is equipped with a state of art MBRAUN glove box, allocated to the research on PV, perovskite solar cell and polymer electrolyte for lithium and Sodium energy storage battery/supercapacitor
facility 3Ellipsometry is a sensitive optical technique for investigating the dielectric properties (complex refractive index or dielectric function) of thin films. It can be used to characterize composition, roughness, thickness (depth), crystalline nature, doping concentration, electrical conductivity and other material properties. facility 4X-Ray Powder Diffraction provides detailed information on the crystallographic structure and physical properties of materials and thin films. It also is the primary, non-destructive tool for identifying and quantifying the mineralogy of crystalline compounds in rocks, soils and particulates.


Continuous Production of Nanomaterials

Continuous Hydrothermal Flow Synthesis (CHFS), is a single step process which involves mixing (in a special reactor) a continuous stream of supercritical water (374 °C, 22.1 MPa) with a continuous stream of water-soluble precursor(s) to give rapid synthesis (within seconds) and controlled growth of nanomaterials.

CHFS represents a scalable and highly tuneable medium determined by manipulation of the process parameters, e.g. with T and P, both of which can influence the supersaturation and nucleation.

The CHFS process has many advantages; it does not utilize a long and complex process, nor is it potentially explosive and it limits the use of harmful or toxic reagents, while effectively reducing the reaction time to a few seconds giving nanomaterials with defined properties.

The CHFS technology can deliver not only 2D derivatives but a variety of other nanomaterials (homo/hetero metal oxides) with a high degree of control over the composition, shape and size, giving significant enhancement to the aforementioned properties of those currently available.

CHFS delivers significant positive changes to the cost, performances, scalability and durability of the materials, parameters that enable their use in a diverse spectrum of applications. To discover more please visit Nano2DLab.


Electrical Characterisation

The LSBU has facilities to characterise the performance of light-emitting devices (LEDs) and other electronic devices.

Optical Characterisation or Spectroscopic Studies

facility 2

The LSBU has advanced equipment for measuring the absorption and luminescence of semiconductor materials both in the steady-state and time-resolved down to picosecond timescale. Such photophysical studies have given new insight into exciton/charge diffusion in LEDs and solar cells.

FLS1000 photoluminescence spectrometer covers detection range from 185 nm to 980 nm and has been successfully used to understand different processes in solar cells, light-emitting devices and photocatalysis. It has also been successfully employed to measure the morphology of thin film devices.

facility 3facility 4Integrating sphere measures the photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of the materials which is often used to quantify non-radiative losses. The PLQY is a direct measure of material’s use in different devices. DS5 Dual Beam UV-Vis spectrometer measures the absorption  of materials and its detection range is from 190 nm to 1100 nm.


Please click for more publications:
GraemeProf. Graeme Maidment

Marques, C., Dunham, C., Jones P., Marques, C., Dunham, C., Jones, P., Matabuena, R., Revesz, A., Roscoe Papini Lagoeiro, H. and Maidment, G. (2019). Integration of high temperature heat networks with low carbon ambient loop systems. 2021 ASHRAE Winter Virtual Conference . 09 - 12 Feb 2021

HariProf. Hari Upadhyaya

Goel, S., Knaggs, M., Goel, G., Zhou, X.W., Upadhyaya, H., Thakur, V.K., Bizarri, G., Tiwari, A., Murphy, A., Stukowski, A. and Matthews, A. (2020). Horizons of modern molecular dynamics simulation in digitalized solid freeform fabrication with advanced materials. Materials Today Chemistry. 18.

DeborahDr Deborah Andrews

Andrews, D. (2020). The role of Design as a barrier to and enabler of the Circular Economy. in: Brandão, M., Lazarevic, D. and Finnveden, G. (ed.) Handbook of the Circular Economy Edward Elgar Publishing.

Anna\Dr Anna-Karin Axelsson

Hojaji Najafabadi, E., Valant, M. and Axelsson, A-K. (2020). Comprehensive adsorption and irradiation modelling of LED driven photoreactor for H2 production. Chemical Engineering Journal. 406 (126860).

paulDr Paul Battersby

Averill, A., Ingram, J., Holborn, P., Battersby, P. and Benson, C. (2020). Ignition of flammable hydrogen/air mixtures by high mass mechanical impact of Magnox contaminated surfaces. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 45 (4), pp. 3372-3380.

TimDr Tim Brown

Damas, A, Negro, D, leducq, D, Dallais, A, Alvarez, G, Brown, T, Evans, J and Foster, A (2020). Small-scale demonstrator of a cold thermal store for liquid air energy storage. 6th IIR Conference on Sustainability and the Cold Chain. Nantes, France 26 - 28 Aug 2020 International Institute of Refrigeration.

JohnDr John Buckeridge

Alotaibi, Abdullah M, Williamson, Benjamin AD, Sathasivam, Sanjayan, Kafizas, Andreas, Alqahtani, Mahdi, Sotelo-Vazquez, Carlos, Buckeridge, John, Wu, Jiang, Nair, Sean P, Scanlon, David O and Parkin, Ivan P (2020). Enhanced Photocatalytic and Antibacterial Ability of Cu-Doped Anatase TiO2 Thin Films: Theory and Experiment. ACS applied materials & interfaces. 12 (13), pp. 15348-15361.

GarethDr Gareth Davies

Davies, G., Blower, J., Hall, R. and Maidment, G. (2020). Investigation of a Solar Assisted Heating System. CIBSE ASHRAE Technical Symposium 2020. On line 14 - 14 Sep 2020

JudithProf. Judith Evans

Biglia, Alessandro, Gemmell, Andrew J, Foster, Helen J and Evans, Judith A (2020). Energy performance of domestic cold appliances in laboratory and home environments. Energy.

Alan\Dr Alan Foster

Moerman, F., Fikiin, K., Evans, J. and Foster, A. (2020). Air infiltration control to reduce hygiene hazard in refrigerated food processing and storage facilities. in: Holah, J., Lelieveld, H. and Moerman, F. (ed.) Hygienic Design of Food Factories, 2nd edition Woodhead Publishing.

ghavamiProf. Mohammad Ghavami

Ghavami, M., Ghavami, N., Tiberi, G., Sani, L. and Vispa, A. (2021). Empirical Assessment of Breast Lesion Detection Capability Through an Innovative Microwave Imaging Device. EuCAP 2021. Online 22 - 26 Mar 2021

suuravDr Saurav Goel

Daminabo, SC, Goel, S, Grammatikos, SA, Nezhad, HY and Thakur, VK (2020). Fused deposition modeling-based additive manufacturing (3D printing): techniques for polymer material systems. Materials Today Chemistry. 16, pp. 100248-100248.

Dr Jim Ingram

Averill, A., Ingram, J., Holborn, P., Battersby, P. and Benson, C. (2020). Ignition of flammable hydrogen/air mixtures by high mass mechanical impact of Magnox contaminated surfaces. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 45 (4), pp. 3372-3380.

SuelaDr Suela Kellici

Baragau, I., Lu, Z., Power, P.N., Morgan, J.D, Bowen, J., Diaz, P. and Kellici, S. (2020). Continuous Hydrothermal Flow Synthesis of S-Functionalised Carbon Quantum Dots for Enhanced Oil Recovery. Chemical Engineering Journal. 405, p. 126631.

simonProf. Simon Philbin

Zhang, J., Jin, W., Yang, G., Li, H., Ke, Y. and Philbin, S.P. (2021). Optimizing regional allocation of CO2 emissions considering output under overall efficiency. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences.

akosDr Akos Revesz

Revesz, A., Marques, C., Davies, G., Matabuena, R., Jones, P., Dunham, C. and Maidment, G. (2020). Initial assessment of a 5th generation district energy network in central London. ASHRAE Transactions. 126, pp. 491-499.

tariqDr Tariq Sajjad

Ferguson, V., Li, B., Tas, M. O., Webb, T., Sajjad, M. T., Thomson, S. A. J., Wu, Z., Shen, Y., Shao, G., Anguita, J. V., Silva, S. R. P. and Zhang, W. (2020). Direct Growth of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes onto Transparent Conductive Oxide Glass for Enhanced Charge Extraction in Perovskite Solar Cells. Advanced Materials Interfaces. 5, p. 2001121.

Innovate UK project :
Green Smart Community Integrated Energy System

project1GreenScies Consumers and businesses based in UK cities stand to benefit from a revolutionary low carbon smart energy grid called GreenSCIES in London and the West Midlands, by project partners: LSBU, Islington Council and Transport for London (TfL). Cleverly concealed underground, the new smart energy grid - which has currently reached design stage - will provide an answer to the challenge of powering inner cities of the future, revolutionising the way we live now and transforming lives, homes and businesses into sustainable energy districts, while tackling fuel poverty and the negative effects of climate change. GreenSCIES aims to deliver a solution which can provide low carbon and low cost transport, power and heat to a total of 12,500 homes in the London Borough of Islington and Sandwell in the West Midlands

EPSRC project : Managing Air for Green Inner Cities

magicMAGIC Our research focuses on implementing state of the art computational fluid dynamics software to assess the spread of air pollutants – especially due to changes in building heights.  Examples of our computational work within the MAGIC project are shown in the right – where the area around the LSBU campus is modelled. The animations show the area of 300-m radius around St George’s Circus and how a tracer disperses within the area, with a south-westerly wind direction. Additional animations of our work can be found on the MAGIC web site.

Euros H2020 project : Cryogenic Energy Storage for Renewable Refrigeration and Power Supply

CryoHub The CryoHub innovation project will investigate and extend the potential of large-scale CES and will apply the stored energy for both cooling and energy generation. By employing Renewable Energy Sources (RES) to liquefy and store cryogens, CryoHub will balance the power grid, while meeting the cooling demand of a refrigerated food warehouse and recovering the waste heat from its equipment and components. CES acts as Grid Energy Storage (GES), where cryogen is boiled to drive a turbine and to restore electricity to the grid. To date, CES applications have been rather limited by the poor RTE due to unrecovered energy losses. The CryoHub project is therefore designed to maximise the CES efficiency by recovering energy from cooling and heating. Refrigerated warehouses for chilled and frozen food commodities are large electricity consumers, possess powerful installed capacities for cooling and heating and waste substantial amounts of heat. Such facilities provide the ideal industrial environment to advance and demonstrate the LAES benefits.

ERDF Interreg NWE project: A Circular Economy for the Data Centre Industry

CEDaCI Data centres process and store all the data generated by digital connected products for an increasing number of activities and users and the sector will grow by 500% globally by 2030. Data centre equipment was designed for a linear (take-make-use-dispose) economy but this is unsustainable and contributes to the growing volume of WEEE and wastes resources. CEDaCI is developing a Circular Economy for the sector to reduce waste and conserve energy and physical resources. We have a whole systems approach to the challenge and bring together actors from all the various subsectors to ensure supply chain security and uninterrupted data centre service, because this has become critical to all parts of our lives inside and outside the home. LSBU is leading CEDaCI to transform the data centre industry with around 20 industrial and research partners in the UK, France, Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany. They include Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy, SMEs and non-profit bodies (e.g. Operational Intelligence, Techbuyer, WeLOOP, Team2, TND, GreenIT Amsterdam, SDIA) as well as global operators (IBM). We have also developed a cross-sectoral network with 100+ members across Europe that includes organisations such as NHS Digital, TechUK, FreeICT Europe and N2S so project reach and collaboration is considerable.

Daiwa Anglo-Japanese Foundation Small Grant: Design and development of nanostructured heat-reflective coated triple vacuum glazing (Smart windows) for sustainable low-carbon buildings of Japan and UK

Daiwa prjectLSBU and Hokkaido University, Japan, undertook this multidisciplinary project, led by Dr Memon, empowering Japan-UK collaboration due to our mutual interest on scientifically contributing to the novel development of triple vacuum glazing with Nano-structured heat reflective coating by utilising the research facilities at the centre of Heat Pump and Thermal Energy Storage, Hokkaido University, and the LCEE, LSBU. It achieved significantly contribution on publications and successful visits from LSBU to Hokkaido University and vice versa. This Japan-UK collaborative project enabled us to develop a future joint venture of different approaches by working together and widening engagement in research dissemination activities between Japan and the UK. It results with successful International Conference on Renewable Energy and vacuum Insulation for Nearly Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs).

The IET/IMechE Engineering Education Grant Scheme: Design, Build, Race & Take Solar Powered Electric Car (Race with Shine)

This project, led by Dr Memon, ran for two years to encourage and motivate students’ aged 11-19, especially females, inrace with shine developing their enthusiasm and encouraging them to contemplate possible future career in the area of Electrical, Electronic & Mechanical Engineering. Groups of young students from local London schools and FE colleges constructed the solar-powered-electric-car by developing the experiences of design, build, test and race learning electrical, electronic and mechanical skills. Our team of academics (The IET/IMechE members) and volunteers based in our School of Engineering engaged students and school/college teachers in developing their enthusiasm, knowledge and passion to Engineering. Students along with teachers took hand-made cars to their home as a motivational symbol to Engineering. Also, students and teachers were invited to visit our in-house high-spec Electrical, Electronic and Mechanical labs and meet our skilled Engineers/technicians with the motivational-demonstration of facilities to the real world applications. The project funded by The IET/IMechE EEGS enabled us to engage local London Schools and FE colleges with the addition of giving motivational lectures on Electricity and publicity to young students in choosing career paths in Engineering and continue long after the completion date as a contribution to enhance our UK’s expertise in Engineering to our young generation.

LCEE has a strong record of collaborative and interdisciplinary research. Examples of our partnerships include:

  • Sellafield Ltd - Collaborations have informed and directed research strategy leading to the development of a hydrogen technical guide and roadmap for hydrogen safety which is now used across the Sellafield sites
  • London Fire Brigade - Collaboration on analysis of reported arson is influencing policy and development of standards
  • Kings College London - Research on polymerisation and emulsification is being carried out in collaboration
  • Flinders University (Australia); Max Planck Insitute (Germany); VITO (Belgium) - Collaborations on a variety of 2D materials
  • Universities of Cambridge; Universities of Cardiff; Imperial College; Universities of Liverpool - Collaborations on informing new research and providing solutions to global challenges in water treatment, antibacterial resistance and catalyst  development  for CO2 utilisation
  • US Department of Energy - Research findings have been disseminated internationally to the US Department of Energy
  • Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences, New Zealand - Projects include climate change impact analysis and modelling of water resource systems
  • Arup Corporation - Collaboration on urban flooding modelling
  • UK Wind Energy Ltd - Collaboration on developing an online wind farm power forecasting system
  • SINOPEC; TOTAL; China University of Petroleum - Strong collabroations on un/conventional reservoir management with LCEE petroleum engineering research
  • Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) - The group’s research has led to new procedures for numerical well testing and endocrine disruption regulations for DEFRA by emerging pollutants research which involves environmental and bio sciences, analytical chemistry and mathematical modelling.
  • Hokkaido University, Japan - Collaboration on translucent vacuum insulation panel and vacuum glazing for net zero energy buildings, developed via Daiwa Anglo-Japanese Foundation small grant
  • Mansoura University, Egypt - Collaboration on vacuum photovoltaics solar thermal collector for thermal  and exergy analyses
  • Coventry University, UK - Collaboration on solar thermal performance of two innovative configurations of air vacuum layered triple vacuum glazed windows
  • Loughborough University, UK - Collaboration on design and development of lead-free glass-metallic vacuum materials for the construction and thermal performance of smart fusion edge-sealed vacuum glazing
  • Kelenn Technology (France)
  • Technische Universitat Dresden (Germany)
  • University of Melbourne (Australia)
  • University of Nantes (France)
  • CEA Grenoble (France)
  • Brunel University