Only Social Work applicants need to pay for their DBS. It costs £46 and can be purchased on our online store.
Please note that due to exceptionally high demand, this course is no longer recruiting for September 2023 entry.
Contemporary Dental Therapy
The BSc (Hons) Dental Therapy is delivered in partnership with the Eastman Dental Hospital. It presents with academic and clinical training pathways working in dental hospitals, general dental practices, and local communities aiming to meet the dental care needs of society today and in the future.
This programme is designed to be a leader and driver in the delivery of dental health care by supplying training and patient service (within the remit of the Dental Therapist) with innovative ideas that foster our Trust values of – safety, kindness, improving and teamwork.
The BSc (Hons) Dental Therapy (DT) programme aims for graduates to be ‘safe beginner’ clinicians, registerable with the General Dental Council. Training is constructed to intertwine clinical skill with building a resilient clinician who is able to meet the increased demands of a changing population. By encouraging a focus on personal development and harnessing transferable skills you will become an adaptable member of the workforce who can work autonomously as well as undertake a whole host of health care employment opportunities.
This course has been provisionally accepted for accreditation by the General Dental Council. It is undergoing the normal process for full approval.
You will be able to:
- Train in world-leading and state of the art facilities
- Be trained by a team who are leaders in the field of dentistry
- Focus on personal qualities enabling you to be an autonomous learner and competent clinician
- Experience a personalised learning journey within a small cohort size
Why Dental Therapy at LSBU?
- Working with our highly experienced dental teams allowing you to experience the real-world work environment.
- Our course leads to professional registration with the General Dental Council.
- Dedicated facilities for simulation training laboratories at our Central London sites offering highly realistic virtual reality training.
- Access to patients in year one.
- A range of clinic placements within the Dental Hospital, Primary Care and the community allows for a diverse patient mix and experience.
- LSBU Health and Social Care graduates are the second highest paid amongst all London Modern university graduates, and the sixth highest in the UK one year after graduating (DfE LEO data 2022).
|Mode||Duration||Start date||Application code||Application method|
|ModeFull-time||Duration3 years||Start dateSeptember||Application codeB750||Application method UCAS|
London South Bank University student union is located at 103 Borough Rd, London SE1 0AA.
If you are visiting our Southwark Campus, you may wish to use our downloadable campus map (PNG File 466 KB). For information on accessibility, see our DisabledGo access guides. See our location page for more details.
Register your interest
Entry Level Requirements
- A Level BBC (must include Biology) or;
- BTEC National Diploma DMM in Science or professionally relevant subject or;
- Access to HE Diploma in Science or similar with 18 level 3 credits which must be in science; 18 Distinctions, 24 Merits and 3 Pass or;
- Equivalent level 3 qualifications also considered worth 112 points.
- Applicants must hold 5 GCSEs A-C including Maths, English and Science or equivalent (reformed GCSEs grade 4 or above).
- Applications are welcome from those with a nationally recognised dental nursing qualification; 2 years post qualification relevant dental experience, 1 post registration qualification and a further level 3 qualification worth 32 points which must include science. Level 2 maths and English which must be in place at the time of application.
Apply via UCAS and following the admission and enrolments procedure.
All students whose first language is not English, must have IELTS-Academic English language proficiency at a minimum of IELTS band 7.0 in each component (must be within two year validity).
This course is not currently open to international students.
European students with indefinite leave to remain may apply however we will not be able to confirm this until after validation and you will also need to already have a NARIC certificate in place alongside your overseas qualifications.
Please note no offers are made without interview. In the current circumstances this is most likely to take place online (subject to change) following government guidance.
Choose your country
Select country here:
If you have already completed some studies at another university, we may be able to consider you for advanced entry. Please see our advanced entry page for more information.
Tuition fees for home students
Tuition fees for international students
Tuition fees are subject to annual inflationary increases. Find out more about tuition fees
BSc (Hons) Dental Therapy (FT) - Year 1
UK fee: £9250 International fee: £ AOS/LSBU code: 5621 Session code: 1FX00 Total course fee: UK: £27750 International: £0
BSc (Hons) Dental Therapy (FT) - Year 2
UK fee: £9250 International fee: £ AOS/LSBU code: 5621 Session code: 2FX00 Total course fee: UK: £27750 International: £0
BSc (Hons) Dental Therapy (FT) - Year 3
UK fee: £9250 International fee: £ AOS/LSBU code: 5621 Session code: 3FX00 Total course fee: UK: £27750 International: £0
The international fee for this course shows as "£0" because this course is not open to international students.
For more information, including how and when to pay, see our fees and funding section for undergraduate students.
Please check your fee status and whether you are considered a Home, EU or International student for fee-paying purposes and for our regulatory returns, by reading the UKCISA regulations.
See our Tuition Fees Regulations (PDF File 391 KB) and Refund Policy (PDF File 775 KB).
Possible fee changes
The University reserves the right to increase its fees in line with changes to legislation, regulation and any government guidance or decisions.
The fees for international students are reviewed annually and the University reserves the right to increase the tuition fees in line with the RPIX measure of inflation up to 4 per cent.
We offer several types of fee reduction through our scholarships and bursaries. Find the full list and other useful information on our scholarships page.
The course is not currently open to international students.
International (non Home) applicants should follow our international how to apply guide.
|Mode||Duration||Start date||Application code||Application method|
|Mode Full-time||Duration 3 years||Start date September||Application code B750||Application method UCAS|
Your personal statement helps us to assess your interest, knowledge and insight into the specific profession you are applying for (Dental Hygiene or Dental Therapy) and is an important part of our selection process. You should ensure that you demonstrate the personal qualities / skills to becoming a healthcare professional and the values embedded within the NHS constitution and General Dental Council Standards.
As part of your commitment to the course we would normally expect that you have undertaken some independent research and work experience / observation in a clinical setting, this can include placements, voluntary work or virtual experiences.
See our top tips for writing your personal statement.
Considering your application
Your application will be circulated to a number of potential supervisors who will look at your academic qualifications, knowledge, experience and insight to the profession.
There will also be a virtual interview and will consist of 2 parts which include a range of questions and a test which will assess your communication and comprehension.
If you are successful, you will be offered a place on a course and informed of the next enrolment date. The whole process normally takes between six to eight weeks, from receipt of your application to a decision being made about your application at the School.
If you are unsuccessful in your application to LSBU for this year you cannot apply through UCAS Extra or Clearing. However, you can apply for the following year. It is important that you read the comments in the results statement so that you are prepared for any other interviews you may have.
Prepare to start
Disclosure Barring Service (DBS)
All pre-registration students need to be DBS cleared before going on placement. You’ll need to have an enhanced DBS check even if you have had one before and will not be able to go on placement until this is complete.
The DBS process is not difficult but can take some time so it's best to get started as soon as you receive your email. You will receive the email during Summer 2023.
DBS update service
If you're part of the DBS update service, your subscription is up to date and you already have a DBS certificate, please bring in your original green DBS certificate for the document check. To take advantage of the update service, your certificate needs to be classified as 'Enhanced' and workforce must be listed as 'Adult and Child'. If you have any queries, please email us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
How to complete your DBS
Our DBS supplier, Verifile, will send you an email with all the details you need to complete your DBS.
Verifile will give you instructions to log into their system and complete your personal details and information. To complete the process, you'll need your passport or driving licence and 5-year address history including dates when you moved in/out.
You can use your application number to track the progress of your DBS.
When you've finished, your Disclosure Statement will be mailed to the most recent address in your submission, so please make sure it's correct. We don't automatically receive a copy of this Statement, which is why we need you to bring it in as part of the next step.
Frequently asked questions
What do I need to declare on my DBS?
Please include any and all major and minor, spent and unspent convictions, cautions, warning and reprimands, even if they relate to juvenile offences or seem trivial or unimportant. Some minor offences will not prevent you from going on placement or being offered a place on your course, but still need to be reviewed so it’s best to be honest and include everything. Also, the more information you include about any offences can help reduce the time it takes to assess them.
I’ve applied for/had a DBS in past. Do I need to do it again?
Yes, you do. You need to have an up-to-date DBS. Once you have received the email from our DBS supplier make sure you start the process straight away. All details of how to do this will be outlined in the email. If you don’t complete your DBS in the timeframe given, we may withdraw your offer even if term has already started. So it’s important that you get started as soon as you receive the email.
Why do I need an enhanced DBS check?
Government legislation requires all Higher Education Institutions who offer courses where students may come into unsupervised contact with children or vulnerable adults to have this check. These checks also help us to ensure duty of care to our students, and create a safer environment for patients seen by our students.
Who reviews my DBS?
As part of the University’s admissions process, declarations of any offence may be referred to a virtual panel made up of senior managers from partner NHS Trusts and/or other sectors within Health and Social Care. Any DBS that is considered by the panel will be anonymised. The panel members then deliberate and make a recommendation whether the application be rejected, accepted or request further information or documents.
When will I hear back from the panel about my DBS?
If you have declared an offence, we might ask for more information from you in writing which will help the panel make a decision. Once your declaration has been referred to the panel it can take up to 28 working days to be processed.
Which address do I use?
You need to put your current address on your DBS application because this is where your Statement will be mailed. If you’ve moved house between submitting and receiving your DBS, make sure you have mail forwarding set up so that you’ll receive your statement. If you’ve moved recently, make sure you have proof of your new address (such as a new bank statement) to bring for your document checks.
I’ve lost my statement. What do I do?
If you’ve lost your statement you will need to pay £46 to purchase a new one.
I’ve had my application rejected due to my DBS declaration/disclosure. Can I appeal the decision?
Yes. If your application has been rejected due to your DSB declaration/discloser, you will be sent a letter to confirm this. There will be instructions in the letter about how you can appeal and which supporting information you need to provide. Once a decision has been made you will receive a letter from the School Executive Team.
Once you have completed the online part of the DBS process, you will need to produce three accepted documents from this list (PDF File 248 KB) to be verified.
Document check on campus
Southwark: Southwark Student Help Desk in the K2 building Monday – Friday between 9am-11am or 1pm-4pm
Havering: come to reception at Havering Monday – Friday between 8:30-10:30am, 12-2pm, 4-5pm
Document check at the Post Office
If you’re not able to come to campus, you can get your documents checked and certified at the Post Office for a fee of £10.50. To do this, make photocopies of your three accepted ID documents and take your DBS form, copies and originals of your documents to the Post Office. The Post Office will stamp the form and photocopies and given them back to you. Email your post office receipt, stamped form and stamped documents to email@example.com.
Occupational Health (OH)
An exciting part of many of our Health and Social Care courses is the opportunity to learn off-campus and work with patients, clients and/or service users. Before you start, we need to make sure that you have the correct levels of immunisations.
The second part of your occupational health check is to get any inoculations that you may need from your GP. When attending your GP appointment, please take printed copies of these two documents with you.
Vaccination Screening Advisory Letter (PDF File 126 KB)
GP Vaccination and Screening History (PDF File 117 KB)
Occupational Health appointment
After these steps are complete you will receive an email from OHWorks Ltd inviting you to attend an appointment on-campus with an Occupational Health Nurse. These appointments take place during the week and sometimes when your classes have already started.
The OH team have prepared this guide (PDF File 588 KB) which outlines what to expect at each stage. If you have queries or concerns about your Occupational Health clearance or inoculations please contact the Occupational Health team.
Frequently asked questions
Do I need to be double vaccinated?
Yes - government legislation advises that everyone must be double vaccinated to work in a health care setting with effect from 1 April 2022.
My local GP doesn’t have my vaccination history. What should I do?
Contact the OH team at firstname.lastname@example.org who will be able to advise you.
What if I can’t make my OH appointment?
Please contact the OH team to reschedule at least 48 hours in advance. Remember that you won’t be able to go on placement until you’re cleared.
I’ve already registered with LSBU’s Disability and Dyslexia Support Unit (DDS). Do I still need to tell the OH Nurse about my condition?
Yes. Tell the OH Nurse about all conditions including specific learning difficulties even if you’ve declared these in the past. This will allow us to make reasonable adjustments whilst you’re on placement.
If I’ve declared a condition to the OH Nurse, do I need to register with LSBU’s Disability and Dyslexia Support Unit as well?
The information you share with the OH Nurse will be treated with confidence, meaning that it won’t be automatically shared with the DDS team. The DDS team can help you to receive support for your lectures, assignments and exams so it’s worth to register with them and provide evidence of your condition if you need this support.
Before starting your course, you may want to check or practice your numeracy skills. The National Numeracy Challenge is a free online tool that helps you learn, revise and quiz your essential numeracy skills. You’ll also be able to get a certificate to show your efforts.
Enrolment and Welcome Week
Before you start your course we’ll send you information on what you’ll need to do before you arrive and during your first few days on campus. You can read about the process on our new students pages.
Most placements and some practical sessions in our skills laboratories will require you to wear a uniform and name badge. You will be measured for uniforms specific to your course as part of your Welcome Week activities after enrolment. In the meantime, we have prepared answers to frequently asked questions that you might find useful.
Frequently asked questions
Do I get a uniform for when I go on placement?
Yes, LSBU will supply you with uniforms for your placement with the exception of Social Work and Health and Social Care BSc students who are not required to wear uniforms for their placements.
Which uniforms will I receive?
Nursing and midwifery students will receive two pairs of trousers, three tunics and a name badge. Polo shirts will be issued instead of tunics for students studying mental health nursing, physiotherapy, chiropractic and sport rehabilitation. ODP students will receive one set of scrubs top and trousers.
How long do the uniforms need to last?
The items are to last for the duration of your programme of study.
How do I know what size I am?
A measuring and distribution service will be available by the uniform provider at both Southwark and Havering campuses. As garments are fitted for work purposes they need to allow for flexibility of movement so it’s best to have the uniform provider measure you up.
Am I able to request a longer tunic?
You can request a longer tunic for religious or medical reasons. To do this, you should advise the uniform supplier at the measuring session. These tunics are 2 inches longer and sleeves finish just above the elbows. Due to infection control, full length sleeves are not permitted.
Can I use a preferred name or a nickname on my name badge?
Name badges are professional and need to include your formal names.
What do I do if I lose or damage my name badge?
You can order a replacement name badge direct with the uniform provider. Badges need to be worn at all times when you are at placement.
Can I order more uniforms?
You are welcome to purchase additional items at Work in Style. You will need to log in using your student ID and then follow the step-by-step instruction. Please note that dresses are not available.
Can I try on my uniforms?
You should try on your uniforms the day you receive them so that the staff at the measuring service can help arrange any size exchanges. If you choose not to try on your uniforms and require different sizes at a later date you will need to purchase these through the uniform provider’s online portal at your own cost.
What do I do with my uniform after I complete my studies?
They are yours to keep – you do not need to return the garments.
Most health and social care courses’ practice placements will operate outside normal working hours e.g. evenings, nights, weekends and bank holidays.
Your holiday periods will not follow the normal University timetable because of placements. You’ll receive more details once you start your course.
Four core modules in year one underpin the theoretical and scientific knowledge needed to deliver clinical care in restorative and periodontology. Aligned with this is the commencement of personal and professional practice which intends to raise personal self-awareness and expectations of registrants beyond the realm of technical skills.
- Biomedical Science - 20 credits
The module provides the knowledge of human general anatomy, physiology, diseases / disorders along with relevant pharmacology which commonly impact general and oral health. The contents of this module has been selected and developed to equip students with the underpinning information which will resonate throughout the entire course. All clinical delivery is grounded on the knowledge of biological and chemical processes and thus here commences the skills to embrace biological advances and catalyse the skills of becoming a life-long learner.
- Foundations in Clinical Skills & Practice - 40 credits
The Foundations in Clinical Skills and Practice Module provides the introduction to the essential range of fundamental skills needed by the Dental Hygienist to deliver safe patient. Students will the knowledge and skills to undertake and deliver treatment safely in the dental setting. This module enters the student into the simulated clinical setting in conjunction with the knowledge of the policies and principles required by a dental professional.
- Oral and Dental Sciences - 40 credits
This module provides an understanding of the structure and function of the craniofacial and oral anatomy. Developing a sound knowledge base of oral and dental sciences exploring the pathology of oral and dental disease. This knowledge will enable students to go on to develop a good understanding of the different dental specialties and pharmacology.
- Personal & Professional Practice 1 - 20 credits
The Personal and Professional Practice 1 module introduces students to the fundamental skills required of a competent student dental clinician under the General Dental Council’s Communication and Professionalism domain. It encompasses knowledge of good communication, legal, ethical and professional aspects of dental practice relevant to a beginner student dental clinician. Students will develop skills for learning, working in a health care setting, self-development and well-being care.
Three core modules in year two allows these skills to be applied in the clinical setting offering the students access to a variety of clinical services. Integration with clinical teams allows for the development of restorative skills, which are needed to demonstrate competence within the clinical scope of a dental therapist, build relationships and provide networking opportunities with other healthcare professionals- uniting the medical and dental teams.
- Applied Clinical Practice in Dental Therapy - 40 credits
Following the successful completion of Foundations in Clinical Skills and Practice students begin treating patients uniting their knowledge base and practical skills to manage patient’s needs pertaining to periodontal diseases and oral health management. This module also incorporates the additional skills of dental radiology and imaging, including clinical photography. Following successful completion of the simulated training in the adult and paediatric restorative dentistry, students will then be able to encounter patients covering the full scope of practice of the dental therapist. Students must comply with health and safety legislation and demonstrate professional conduct and clear communication methods with patients, staff and peers.
- Dental Specialities - 60 credits
This module encompasses the various dental specialities incorporating both a patient and population focus, thus considering the wider context of providing the most appropriate care. Dental Specialities offers the opportunity of inter-professional learning and working with multi-disciplinary teams and offers access to the wider facets of the healthcare profession. Alongside this, students develop the skills and evidence base to promote and maintain health at the individual and population level. To achieve this end, students will analyse the needs of populations including the determinants of health and their impact. Health promotion principles and interventions will be critically evaluated according to their impact, ability to achieve health gain, and the limitations. This incorporates exploration of the wider context of health systems, dental care and policy. It will examine epidemiological methods in health and their application providing a baseline for the research module in Year 3.
- Personal & Professional Practice 2 - 20 credits
Personal and Professional Practice 2 module builds upon knowledge gained in year one of the programme to enhance the personal and professional attributes required as a dental registrant. Advanced guidance on application of knowledge is offered in teamwork, interprofessional collaborative practice, legal and ethical requirements of a dental professional. Students will develop opportunity to exercise judgement in self-evaluation of performance, performing within a team and acting in the patients’ best interest while upholding the standards of the profession. Students will be guided through self-evaluating modes, theories and take responsibility for personal development, recording, planning strategies and quality improvement measures.
- Applied Clinical Practice in Dental Therapy - 60 credits
The Consolidated Clinical Practice module in Dental Therapy builds on the skills learnt in Year 1 and 2 to provide students with the knowledge and operative clinical skills to diagnose, treatment plan and treat adults and children within their scope of practice. This module provides a route for students to increase clinical competence and demonstrate proficiency in the breadth of skills applicable of a remit of a qualified Dental Therapist, therefore clinical activity is a core part of this module. Students will learn in a variety of settings including a combination of supervised clinical practice, outreach placements and classroom teaching which will cover the contemporary underpinning of theoretical knowledge required to meet the General Dental Council’s requirements.
- Research and Dissertation - 40 credits
Final year students will undertake an independent research project relevant to oral health. This module introduces students to the field of research and the experience to conduct ethical research. Students will source, select, and critically appraise relevant literature to produce a dissertation, poster and presentation. Experiences will include individual and group-based interactive activities, external engagement, and one to one supervision. The majority of this module is student-led relying on self-directed learning, motivation and project management skills.
- Personal & Professional Practice 3 - 20 credits
Personal and Professional Practice 3 module incorporates non-clinical skills associated with delivery of healthcare. It explores leadership skills, resource management and quality improvement processes which are embedded in every student clinical session. It consolidates the student’s application of skills gained from previous two years in the General Dental Council’s (GDC) domain of Communication and Professionalism. Students become highly self-aware individuals, with a wide peripheral view of the healthcare environment and adopt an effective teamwork approach. This module will look at legislative impact on the dental health framework and prepares students for transition into a practising career.
All modules are core modules and must be successfully completed to be eligible for consideration for professional registration.
At LSBU, we want to set you up for a successful career. During your studies – and for two years after you graduate – you’ll have access to our Employability Service, which includes:
- An online board where you can see a wide range of placements: part-time, full-time or voluntary. You can also drop in to see our Job Shop advisers, who are always available to help you take the next step in your search.
- Our Careers Gym offering group workshops on CVs, interview techniques and finding work experience, as well as regular presentations from employers across a range of sectors.
Our Student Enterprise team can also help you start your own business and develop valuable entrepreneurial skills.
On successful completion of the course you will gain your BSc (Hons) in Dental Therapy, which means you can register with the General Dental Council (GDC). You can then work as a registered Dental Therapy in the public and private sector. As your career progresses, you could move into other areas such as owning your own dental practice, dental company representative, key speaker, clinical advisor and advance in your clinical and academic career moving towards and MSc or a PhD.
As a graduate from this course, you can apply for further study at postgraduate level
This course is designed to meet the requirements set out by the General Dental Council for students to be put forward for registration.
The teaching faculty are actively involved within the profession nationwide via various networks which include:
- General Dental Council
- Professional Bodies - British Society of Dental Hygiene & Therapy (BSDHT), British Association of Dental Therapy (BADT), British Society of Periodontology (BSP)
- Board member
- External Examiners
- Higher Education Academy
- Editorial boards on publications committees
The Eastman Dental Hospital Education Centre is closely linked with Health Education England which allows widening of networks and uptake of new opportunities from clinical to strategic level.
Within your curriculum you may be taught by guest lecturers who may include representatives from other health care disciplines within and externally to the Trust and market leading dental companies.
The course has received initial approval from the General Dental Council (GDC) and final accreditation will be provided upon completion of the first cohort.
Clinical placements are embedded throughout the program and commence following the successful completion of the pre-clinical patient safety gateway assessments. The clinical placements provide a rich learning environment to prepare students for professional practice. Students will be able to develop their clinical skills working towards the competence of a dental therapist.
You will undertake clinical patient care within the Royal National ENT and Eastman Dental Hospitals. Prior to each placement you will have an induction and meet the clinical supervisors and support teams.
You will have several placements within the different dental specialities at the Royal National ENT and Eastman Dental Hospitals including Radiology/Dental Imaging departments. There will be opportunities to undertake clinical service within the Community Dental Services and general dental practices presenting real-world experience of the dental therapist.
The final year returns to two main placements both within the main dental hospital and primary dental care. The overall aim allowing you to prepare for working life in dental workforce as an independent practitioner.
Teaching and Assessment
The programmes adopt a spiralling modular approach to the delivery of its content allowing the opportunity for progressive upskilling and revisiting vital aspects of dentistry, allowing for key areas to be embedded within the three years. Teaching and learning activities are patient and student-centred and provide opportunities for genuine and contextual learning.
Staff deliver education in a variety of teaching and learning methods (blended learning) throughout the programme. These are designed to match the learning outcomes and to provide each student with experience of methods best suited to their own learning style, supporting the move to an independent and self-directed mature learner.
You will come across various modes of assessment which includes some of the below:
- Written examination papers
- Written reports
- Reflective writing
- Presentations (individual and group)
- Practice Based Learning record
- Personal and professional development portfolio
- OSCE (Objective Structured Clinical Examinations)
- Case based discussions
- Case Presentations (seen and unseen)
- Assessments of Clinical Competence (ACC).
- Clinical targets
- Group work activities
As a one of our students, you will be allocated a named tutor during your first three weeks at LSBU. The role of your tutor is to be your primary contact for academic and professional development support.
Your tutor will support you to get the most of your time on the programme, providing advice and signposting to other sources of support in the University. They should be the first person that you speak to if you are having any difficulties that are affecting your work. These could be academic, financial, health-related or another type of problem.
You can contact your tutor for additional support by email.
The programme is structured in a modular framework encompassing a mixture of formative and summative assessments. In conjunction to assessing the learning outcomes the assessment framework is driven by ‘who the student will become’, it is imperative the students make connections across modules, enhancing their meaning and drive. The formative and summative assessments have been selected to ensure the appropriate level of knowledge being achieved corresponding to each year group.
Prior to entering the clinical environment, patient safety must be assured at the appropriate level by assessing academic and clinical competence. Various methods of assessment have been included to ensure measures are contextual and relevant to support the candidate transitioning from simulation to clinical service.
The range of assessments reflects the range of learning outcomes and achieves both self-knowledge and allows the ability to monitor abilities and progression.
Throughout the programme students will be assessed in each practice placement against specific standards applicable for the year group. Clinical competences are carefully designed at each level to facilitate progressive development and relate to the achieving specific skills required for a set task demonstrating independent practice for that level.
Course Enquiries - UK
Tel: 0207 815 7500
International team enquiry
Tel: +44 (0) 20 7815 6189Get in touch